Unit 17 : War And Peace Excercise Solution
(Train to Pakistan)

A. What do the underlined words in the following sentences mean? Tick the best answer.

a. clamour : a loud and confused noise
b. precariously : not securely
c. scrutiny : examination
d. absconded : hid somewhere secretly
e. anglicized : characteristics of English
f. platitudes : doubtful remarks

B. Many words have been borrowed in English from different languages.
Find the meaning of the following words which are borrowed from Hindi language.


veranda:a roofed open walkway or space attached to the exterior of a building

khaki: a brownish-yellow cloth used especially for military uniforms 

pashmina :fine fabric made from goat’s wool

pajamas:loose pants usually worn in South Asian countries 

pukka:genuine, excellent

pundit: a Hindu priest, somebody who is wise

avatar: an incarnation of Hindu deity, somebody who embodies an idea or concept

bangle:a stiff usually ornamental bracelet, rigid bracelet

cheetah:fast African wild cat, a large member of the cat family

guru:a Hindu or Sikh spiritual teacher, a leader or expert, a revered teacher 

Jungle: a tropical area covered with trees, forest

karma:action, deed, work determining the future state

nirvana :an ultimate experience of pleasure, a state of freedom with no personal wishes and suffering

shampoo :hair-cleaning product, a soapy liquid for washing your hair

raita:South Asian yoghurt dish with chopped cucumber and other dishes

C. Add the given suffixes to the following words to make new words. Notice whether ‘e’ is retained or dropped.

a. change + -able / -ing / -ed / – less
changeable, changing, changed, changeless

b. time + -ly / -ing / -ed / -less
timely, timing, timed, timeless

c. notice + -able / -ing / -ed
noticable, noticing, noticed

d. praise + -worthy / -ing / -ed
praiseworthy, praising, praised

e. home + -less / -ing / -ly
homeless, homing, homely

Answer the following questions.

a. Why did Iqbal want to sleep in the afternoon ? 

Ans.: Iqbal wanted to sleep in the afternoon because he had spent the night sitting on his bedroll in a crowded third-class compartment of the train where he could not sleep well.

b.How did people react with each other in the train? 

Ans.: The train was overcrowded with passengers. The children used to cry until they were breastfed by their mothers. There was continuous shouting and clamour. There was an argument between the travellers and even their family every few minutes.

c.Why did the book Iqbal was reading bring commotion in the compartment?

Ans.: The book that Iqbal was reading was in the English language which most of them had no knowledge about. In addition to this, the people in the compartment had a view that a person who knows to read the books in English was a very great and wise person. This is the reason why the book he was reading bring commotion in the compartment.

d.Why did Iqbal have to give clarification with his personal details? 

Ans.: Iqbal was a person who had knowledge of the English language and when other travellers came to know this, they thought that Iqbal was in fact, a very well-to-do and influential person. They insisted to know the background of Iqbal. As a result, Iqbal had to give clarification with his personal details.

e.Who was Meet Sing and what did he report to Iqbal ? 

Ans.: Meet Singh was a priest of a Gurudwara. Meet Singh reported to Iqbal about the crime that had been committed by Jugga.

f.How, according to Meet Singh, was Jugga Sing different from his forefathers? 

Ans.: Though Jugga’s forefathers too were dacoits, they did not use to rob their own village. They too did not use to kill the people of their village. In fact, the village used to be safe as other dacoits were afraid to come into the village. Unlike them, Jugga had looting in his own village and also killed one of the villagers. Thus, Jugga Singh was different from his forefathers.

g.How does the author show contradiction in Meet Singh’s character? 

Ans.: Meet Singh is a priest in Gurudwara. In the text, Meet Singh was bothered by not Jugga committing murder but by the fact that he had murdered a fellow villager. However, if Jugga had murdered a person in the neighbouring village, Meet Singh would have gladly appeared in the defence of Jugga and sworn on the holy granth that Jugga had been praying in the gurudwara at the time of the murder. Thus, the author shows a contradiction in Meet Singh’s character.

h.Who was Hukum Chand and how did he succeed in his career ? 

Ans.: Hukum Chand was a deputy sahib or naradmi. Hukum Chand always used to keep the sahibs pleased and they gave him one promotion after another. Thus, Hukum Chand succeeded in his career.

Critical thinking

a. Iqbal is addressed as Babu Sahib by general folk simply because he knew English. Are Nepali people who can speak English taken with respect? Discuss the importance of learning English in the Nepali context.

Ans.: Yes, Nepali people who can speak English are taken with respect. This is because, in our society, it is usually believed that the people who know English are highly educated, wise. knowledgeable and intelligent.

The English language plays a vital role among the people in developing countries like Nepal in building their career and employment opportunities. The English language in Nepal and other developing countries too, has now expanded its reach to various fields such as democracy, media, international politics, commerce, human rights, diplomacy, tourism and various other development sectors. In Nepal, mostly younger generations are highly influenced and attracted by the English language. They use English mostly while using mobile, internet, social media as English has been wisely a system of language mostly for mass media technology and foreign culture.

In addition to this, Nepal is a hub for maximum tourists and thousands of tourists visit Nepal every year. The tourism industry has been the backbone of the country’s economy. But for handling tourists, we need to have a good command of English which shows how important the English language is for better communication with tourists. It also facilitates the international mobility of students, tourists, workers and others. Nowadays international mobility of students is rapidly increasing in Nepal. Most students prefer to go abroad for higher education and better career opportunities. The English language has helped the students to study in foreign countries and find a high-quality job, communicating with the international world. Since English has been a language in Nepal that has been used in almost every field of daily human activities directly or indirectly, there is a great importance of the English language in Nepal.

b.Do you agree with Iqbal’s comments on crime and punishment? In your view, what should the state, society and individuals do for peace and order in social lives? 

Ans.: Iqbal, in the text, mentions that the nature of crime is not carried by the blood or historical background of a criminal, rather there are different circumstances that force an individual to be a criminal. In the text, Iqbal also states people don’t try to understand the reason behind theft and robbery conducted by subjects rather people wish to see them in jail and hanged. The death penalty and severe punishment don’t seem to control murders and crimes, rather they increase these murders and crimes tremendously.

There are different ways to maintain peace and order in society and for this, the state, society and individuals, all must be equally responsible. The first is generating awareness among the people and also educating them so that everyone possesses the basic knowledge of right and wrong. Moral habits should be developed in children from a very young age by parents. Society should treat every people to enjoy their rights so that no religious, political and ethnic tension arises. The state should impose certain rates and regulations for people as well as give them the freedom to enjoy all rights and fulfil their duties. In addition to this, the state must be concerned about the suffering and problems of its people. The state also should be responsible to eliminate all types of discrimination from society. The state should involve all its active population in income-generating activities too. Only then. peace and order can prevail in society.


A.Meet Singh says Jugga a badmash. There can be such people in your locality, too. Write a paragraph describing him / her. 

Ans.: The person whom I consider to have a bad character or badmash in my society is my own cousin – Jange. Speaking about Jange’s background, his parents are very nice and likeable people. However, Jange is just so different from them that he could very well be adopted. He is a bully who takes advantage of his height and age in order to get his way with the younger people in the family. He smokes, takes drugs, and steals money from his parents. He even becomes ready to kill people in order to get money. He has more than once run away from home when he did not get his way and even struck his mother when she refused to give him gambling money. Last month, he even got caught for murdering a person and robbing his house. Now, he is in prison.

B.You may have travelled by bus or train. During your travel, you might have got different experiences. Write a letter to your friend describing about your unforgettable journey. 


15th October

Kiritpur-07, Kathmandu Dear Sailesh,

I am fine here and I hope you are also fine there. I got your last letter where you have mentioned your beautiful experience of watching your first 3-D movie show. I really enjoyed the letter you wrote. As you have asked about my first journey by train, I am too going to tell you about my first and unforgettable journey by train.

You know Sailesh, some journeys can never be forgotten. It reverberates in our mind again and again. I had such an experience – the memory of my first train journey. After my NEB exam, I visited my maternal uncle’s house in Guwahati in Assam State in India. One day, my maternal uncle told me that he was going to Allahbad due to some official works and he asked me if I would join him during his journey. I was so delighted to hear this that my dream of travelling by train has come to be true.

Our train, the North-East Express was already on the main platform. My maternal uncle and I climbed onto the train and quickly found our berths. We boarded the train and quickly occupied our places. At 6.00 am, the whistle blew and the train began to move. I was beginning my maiden train journey. A thrill of excitement ran through my veins.

I sat by the window and looked at the passing scenery. Within minutes, we crossed the mighty Brahmaputra River. It was a fascinating sight to see the bridge with its numerous pillars and columns. Thereafter, numerous rivers, bridges, evergreen paddy fields, enchanting tea gardens, vast plains, villages, roadside shops, etc. sped before our sight. In the late afternoon, we reached New Jalpaiguri Station, which is the gateway to

Darjeeling and Sikkim. Some of us got out of the train to have a look at the station. I However, we had to rush back quickly as the train started moving. The wonders of the

big station had distracted us and we didn’t realize how quickly time had passed. The onward journey from N.J.P station (New Jalpaiguri) was a thrilling experience as our train inched its way through the enchanting Gangetic plains offering us wonderful sights of lush green fields, groves of fruit trees, straight roads, tiny cottages, huge factories, busy towns and numerous stations.

In the evening we visited the pantry car which was at the end of the train. We had to go through several compartments. In most compartments, people were talking, reading and playing cards.

Children were running about and enjoying themselves. Many people were seen dozing| away, while some were engaged in heated debates. At 8.30 p.m. our dinner was served. After dinner, we continued to gossip. I couldn’t sleep as it was my first night too on a train. I was too tired after the eventful day. I retired to my berth and slept off quickly. The shouts of tea vendors woke me up early morning. At first, I was confused. I didn’t know where I was. Slowly I realized that I was on a train on my way to Allahabad. Soon my maternal uncle informed me that within an hour we would reach Allahabad station. I jumped out of my berth and quickly brushed my teeth and washed my face.

After a quick breakfast, we packed our belongings and got ready to get down. At 7.30 am, we reached our destination. Taking our belongings, we jumped out of the train. As I walked past the train, I looked back and said goodbye to the train which had brought me to the destination. Thus, it was the first journey of my life by train which was really a super thrilling and never-forgetting moment of my life.

Your caring friend


C. Fill in the gaps with the suitable form of the verb in the brackets. Use past simple/past continuous/past perfect tenses. You may need to use negative too.

It was Sunday afternoon. I was watching (watch) a cookery programme on TV when I realised (realise) how hungry I was. But of course, I was hungry; I hadn’t eaten (eat) anything since lunch, and I had run (run) a race in the morning. “Biscuits!” I thought (think). My mother had given (give) me a jar of delicious home-made biscuits.

I went (go) into the kitchen, opened (open) the fridge and poured (pour) some milk in a big glass. Then I looked (look) for the kitchen chair but it wasn’t (be) there: somebody had taken (take) it away. And there were no biscuits in the biscuit jar: somebody had eaten (eat) them all! I was sure I had put (put) the jar there the previous day and I had eaten (eat) only one cookie. It was very strange.

A few minutes later, I was drinking (drink) my glass of milk when I heard (hear) a loud noise coming from the dining room. I went (go) there quickly and I opened (open) the door. I couldn’t believe my eyes. An enormous monkey was eating (eat) the biscuits excitedly on the kitchen chair.

D. Rewrite the following sentences correcting the mistakes.

a. She played the flute and then she had sung in their choir.

She had played the flute and then she had sung in their choir.

b. I borrowed Rima’s car. Had you known about it?

I had borrowed Rima’s car. Had you known about it?

c. After the lesson had finished, we run out of school.

After the lesson had finished, we ran out of school.

d. Had you be there? – Yes, the previous year.

Had you been there? -Yes, the previous year.

e. Did you liked my article published in the Himalayan Times yesterday?

Did you like my article published in the Himalayan Times yesterday?

f. I recognized him because I saw him before.

I recognized him because I had seen him before.

g. I hadn’t gone out because I hadn’t finished my homework.

I didn’t go out because I hadn’t finished my homework.

h. We had done nothing like this at that time.

We did nothing like this at that time.

i. It was quite difficult. I had had no idea what to do.

It had been quite difficult. I had no idea what to do.

j. As far as I’d known, she had always had some pets.

As far as I knew, she had always had some pets.

k. When I met Jim, he was already a soldier for three years.

When I met Jim, he had already been a soldier for three years.

l. He had gone to the coffee because somebody had told him.

He went to the the coffee because somebody had told him.