Unit 19 : Migration And Diaspora Excercise Solution
(Dediasporization: Homeland and Hostland)

Working with words

A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings. The first letter of the word has been given.

a. sojourner a person who resides temporarily in a place
b. transnational existing in or involving different countries
c. remittance a sum of money sent in payment or as a gift
d. assimilation the process of allowing somebody to become a part of a country or community
e. misnomer a name or a word that is not appropriate or accurate
f. confer to give somebody an award or a particular honour or right
g. dormant not active or growing now but able to become active
h. persecution the act of treating somebody in a cruel and unfair way

B. Pronounce the following words. What sounds do the underlined letter(s) represent?

ribbon : /ˈɹɪbən/
filled : /fɪld/
phone : /fəʊ̯n/
often : /ˈɒf(t)ən/
ghost : /ɡəʊst/
who : /huː/
back : /bæk/
edge : /ɛdʒ/
jellyfish : /ˈdʒɛliˌfɪʃ/
Christmas : /ˈkɹɪsməs/
acclaim : /ə.ˈkleɪm/
spell : /spɛl/
summer : /ˈsʌmə(ɹ)/
sink : /skɪn/
tongue : /tɒŋɡ/
happy : /ˈhæpiː/
wrong : /ɹɒŋ/
sun : /sʌn/
batter : /ˈbætə(ɹ)/
five : /faɪv/
why : /waɪ/
yellow : /ˈjɛl.əʊ/
treasure : /ˈtɹɛʒɚ/
cheese : /t͡ʃiːz/
shark : /ʃɑɹk/
thief : /θiːf/
feather : /ˈfɛð.ə(ɹ)/

C. Write the number of syllables and mark the stressed syllable of the following words.

WordsStessed SyllablesSyllablescertificate/səˈtɪfɪkeɪt/4 syllablesholiday/ˈhɒlɪdeɪ/3 syllableszoology/zuːˈɒlədʒi,zəʊˈɒlədʒi/4 syllablesphotographic/ˌfəʊtəˈɡrafɪk/4 syllablesgeography/dʒɪˈɒɡrəfi,ˈdʒɒɡrəfi/4 syllablescuriosity/kjʊərɪˈɒsɪti/5 syllablesmechanically/mɪˈkanɪkli/5 syllablescharacteristics/karəktəˈrɪstɪk/5 syllablesexamination/ɪɡˌzamɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n,ɛɡˌzamɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/5 syllablesnegotiation/nɪɡəʊʃɪˈeɪʃ(ə)n/5 syllablesparaphrase/ˈparəfreɪz/3 syllablesparadoxically/ˌparəˈdɒksɪkli/6 syllablesterritoriality/ˌtɛrɪˈtɔːrɪəlɪti/7 syllables


A. Match the first halves of the sentences (a-g) with their second halves (i-vii).

a. The term assimilation has been usediiib. It is essential to study the process of diasporizationvc. The definition of dediasporizationviid. The dediasporization process for migrants who have not given up their native citizenshipvie. Some countries grant full citizenship to the returneesivf. It is surprising thatig. The role of a state in dediasporizationii

i. in some countries the returnees are referred as diaspora.ii. reveals its identity.iii. as an analytical tool in the study of integration of the migrants.iv. while some countries bar them from certain rights.v. in order to understand the description of immigration.vi. requires them only to return to their homeland.vii. focuses only on the aspect of relocating migrants to their homelands.

Answer the following questions.

a.According to the author, what are the three aspects of migration?

Ans.: According to the author, the three aspects of migration are:

i. The forward motion

ii. Migrants themselves

iii. Backward motion

b.Which aspect of migration is neglected by the researchers? 

Ans.: Researchers are neglecting the pluri-dimensionality aspect of migration by putting little emphasis on it.

c.What is ‘dediasporization’ ?

Ans.: Dediasporization is defined as the process by which a diasporic subject either reacquires homeland citizenship by returning to the sending country, effects generational assimilation in the host state, or reinscribes himself or herself in the transnational circuit of the transnational state.

d.Why is the role of the state important in dediasporization? 

Ans.: The state has a distinct role to play in the deployment in the various phases of dediasporization. The state follows procedures fixed in law to make a decision on each case. So, the role of the state is very important in dediasporization.

e.How is Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean different from others? 

Ans.: Chinese have been living in the Caribbean for more than a century, but they are still considered by the locals as foreigners. This shows that the Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean is different from others.

f.Why is it difficult to regain citizenship after returning to the homeland? 

Ans.: The integration of citizens in a society largely depends on the state’s bestowal of legal legitimacy. In a similar way, some states that do not endorse the concept dediaspora have established more complicated procedures to regain citizenship. Here again, considerations for regaining citizenship vary greatly in relation to residency, the abdication of one’s citizenship, and one’s legal status upon return. Hence, it is difficult to regain citizenship after returning to the homeland.

g.What do the German feel towards the returnees from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan? Ans.: The returnees from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in contrast to their official acknowledgement as German citizens with full rights from the day of their arrival onwards, are primarily perceived as Russians in everyday interactions with German and non-German residents, Germans find these returnees distinct from the group and the rest of society.

h.Why are the returnees’ activities in Israel different from that of other countries? 

Ans.: In Israel, the state confers full citizenship to the individuals returning back to Israel. Likewise, some returnees form their own political party, which caters to the interests of Israelis returnees. This trend is almost not found in any other country in the world. Thus, the returnees’ activities in Israel are full of independence and more empowering than that of other countries.

i.What is the role of the individual in dediasporization ? 

Ans.: The process of dediasporizaiton starts when the individual desires to return to the homeland and for this, he/she must go through formal state procedures to reacquire one’s nationality and citizenship. Moreover, it is an individual who has to return to the home country and assimilate back with the people and culture. Hence, there is a great role of the individuals in dediasporization.

Critical thinking

a.Many Nepali people are living in foreign countries now and they are known as Non- Residential Nepalis (NRNS). The NRNS are asking for dual citizenship rights. Do you think the Government of Nepal should address their demands? 

Ans.: The trend of settling abroad of Nepalese people is increasing day by day. People are leaving their home country and getting settle outside in search of security, job opportunities and a better future for themselves and for their offspring too. Many people who have emigrated to these foreign countries have got the citizenship of the respective countries where they live. And according to the law of Nepal, people who hold the citizenship of any other country must give up the citizenship of Nepal. As a result, many Non-Resident Nepalese (NRNs) are compelled to give up the citizenship of their birthplace and country of origin in order to get the citizenship of foreign countries.

Though Non-Resident Nepalese have acquired the citizenship of foreign countries and given up the citizenship of Nepal, they still have love, affection, dedication and a sort of belonging to Nepal – the place of their origin. No matter in the world where they are present, they have a sort of bonding and love towards Nepal. In fact, Non-Resident

Nepalese are in a great dilemma. Though they have acquired the citizenship of keys countries, they cannot escape from the love and memory of their place of origin, ie Nega Likewise, if they return to Nepal, they don’t find their future secure here. So, these people are demanding the provision of dual citizenship for Non-resident Nepalese. Non-residen Nepalese have natural love and respect towards the country of origin. Thought they migh have earned a lot in foreign countries, they are not confident about living in these countries In addition to this, Non-Resident Nepalese can bring a lot of wealth required for the development of the nation. Hence, I do believe that the government should address the demands of Non-Resident Nepalese

b.The NRNS celebrate festivals like Teej. Dashain, Lhosar, Id and Holi in foreign countries. What do these celebrations signify? 

Ans.: NRNS gather together and establish an organization to unite all Non-Resident Negali (NRNS) people and Nepalese organizations throughout the country under one umbrella organization to form a unified and institutional movement to achieve the mutual benett between all NRNs and people of Nepali origin. At present time, NRNs are celebrating and promoting their home culture and successfully passing them to their children. They are conserving and uplifting their identities, culture, civilization, etc. and are establisiting themselves as successful parents. These celebrations signify the unity of people in an abroad country the celebration of festivals like Teej. Dashain, Lhoshar, Id and Holi depics the sense of unity and cooperation among the Non-Resident Nepalese people. Hence, fis tradition of celebrating festivals-like Teej. Dashain, Lhoshar, Id and Holf shows the love belief and value and dedication of Nepalese people abroad towards their home culture traditional festivals.


A. The following words and phrases are used in interpreting data of different types of charts and diagrams. Study the words/phrases and put them in the right column.

Upward TrendDownward TrendStable Trendgrow, go up to, boom, peak, level up, rise, climb, increasedecline, collapse, fall, drop, dip, go down, reduce, decrease, crash, plunge, plummetstay constant, remain stable, no change, remain steady, stay, maintain the same level

B.Interpret data in the following charts and graphs using appropriate words and phrases. Make comparisons when required.

a. Nepali student migration

The given bar diagram illustrates the information about the migration of Nepalese students from the year 2009/2010 to 2018/2019. Overall, there were 26948 students who migrated during 2009/2010, which decreased by more than half in the next year to 11912 migrants. The graph recorded the all-time lowest migration with the number of students in the year 2011/2012 which was 10258. From 2012/2013 onwards, the migrated number of students rose continuously up to the final year. The number of students who migrated reached 16499, 28126, 30696, 37037, 50569 and 58758 in the year 2012/13, 2013/14/ 2014/15, 2016/17 and 2017/18 respectively. In the given final year, i.e. 2018/19, the number of students reached to all-time high which is 63,259.

b.The pie chart below illustrates how internet users aged 16+ prefer to access the internet at home and in other places. Summarise the information in the pie chart by selecting and reporting the main features.

This graph shows the results of a survey in which people aged 16 and over were asked about their preferred devices for accessing the internet. The question referred to going online at home and in other places. Participants mentioned four main devices in their answers: a smartphone, a laptop, a tablet and a desktop computer.

From the pie chart it is clear that the majority of participants prefer to use laptops, with just three per cent difference between the two. Nearly a third of participants prefer to go online with a smartphone. Thirty per cent like to use a laptop. A desktop computer accounts for fourteen per cent of users’ preferred devices. Only a small minority prefer a device other than these main four.

In conclusion, since mobile and portable devices are the most popular choices, it is clear that many participants are accessing the internet outside their homes. The desktop computer is the least popular of the four main devices. In future, we can probably expect to see more and more people accessing the internet with smartphones as their preferred choice.

c.Trend of death of migrant workers

The above line graph shows the trend of death of migrant workers from the year 2008/09 to 2017/18. The graph shows that the number of deaths of migrant workers was recorded to be 77 in the year 2008/09 which was the lowest of all. The tendency of death of migrant workers rose continuously up to the year 2014/15. The death of migrant workers was 419, 566, 648, 722, 877 and 1006 in the year 2009/10, 2010/11, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2015/16 respectively. The death toll of migrant workers in 2014/15 is the highest of all with the total number of deaths 1066. The years 2015/16 and 2016/17 saw a decrease in the death of migrant workers with the numbers 816 and 756 respectively. However, the death toll rose to 821 in the year 2017/18.


A. Make sentences from the table below using used to / didn’t use to as shown in the example.

a. She used to travel a lot but now she rarely leaves her town.
b. She used to be lazy but now she works hard.
c. She didn’t use to like junk food but she eats momo and noodles these days.
d. She used to have a pet but it died last year.
e. She used to be a school teacher but now she is a professor.
f. She used to have many friends but now she has limited friends.
g. She did not use to read many books but she reads a lot books.
h. She didn’t use to take coffee but now she drinks coffee.
i. She used to go to parties a lot but now she doesn’t attend parties.

B. Complete the following sentences with used to or would.

a. My sister used to have short hair when she was young.
b. We used to have lunch in the same school café when I was in middle school.
c. My father used to play badminton before he had backbone problem.
d. When I was very young, I didn’t use to (not) like milk.
e. She would call me after class for a chat.
f. My mother didn’t use to (not) wear glasses when she was at the university.
g. When I was a child, we used to live in a village.
h. On Sundays, My mother would wake up and go to the temple.
i. How many friends would have in class ten?
j. My father would always read me bedtime stories before bed.