Unit 8 : Human Culture Excercise Solution
(Land of Plenty)

Working with words

A. Complete the given sentences with the suitable words from the box.

a. The annual report has caused acute embarrassment to the government.
b. Ellen has worn high-heels. She is teetering.
c. Look! The poor horse is dragging a heavy load.
d. As they approached the outskirts of the city, Ella’s mood visibly lightened.
e. The parcel was wrapped in plain brown paper. It still looks attractive.
f. Fruits and vegetables grow in abundance in the Terai region.
g. They can abstract precious medicines from ordinary substances.

C. Add suitable suffix to the root words given and write the parts of speech of each newly formed word.

Root WordSuffixNew WordsNeighbourhoodNeighbourhood (n.)ComfortableComfortable (adj.)ShopingShopping (n.)HuskerHusker (n.)SqueamishlySqueamishly (adv.)ChangeingChanging (adj.)ShineingShining (adv.)ColloquiallyColloquially (adv.)CollectionCollection (n.)EmbarrassmentEmbarrassment (n.)PersuadeivePersuasive (adj.)TypeingTyping(adj.)DifferenceDifference (n.)ShipingShipping(adj.)TropicalTropical (adj.)DriveingDriving (adj.)ResideenceResidence (n.)BrotherhoodBrotherhood (n.)FreshnessFreshness (n.)

D. Look for the following words related to waste management in an English dictionary. Make sentences of your own using them.

1.sewage: human and domestic waste carried away through sewers

-People in my town have changed the pond as a site for throwing human sewage.

  1. sludge: semi-solid residue produced from wastewater treatment

-Composted sludge of degradable wastes is rich in nutrients required for plants. 

  1. organic waste: a waste that comes from plants or animals and is degradable 

-Manure prepared from organic waste is a good natural fertilizer.

  1. inorganic waste: a waste that comes from metals and chemicals and in non-degraded -Inorganic waste must be checked by the 3R process Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

5.methane: a harmful gas that contributes to climate change

-Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that are responsible for global warming. 

6.waste reduction: a process of reducing waste

-If we sincerely follow the principle of waste reduction, then only we can save the environment of this place.

7.monofil: landfill that is intended to be used for only one type of waste

-This monofil is allocated only for throwing plastic bottles and polythene bags. 

8.market waste: waste generated at vegetables, fruit, meat and fish markets

-We can produce a lot of manure as well as electricity if we properly dispose of market waste.

9.incineration: the destruction of waste material by burning

-Waste materials are better to be recycled than destroy them using the incineration technique.

  1. hazardous waste: waste that is dangerous to public health

-Villagers protested in front of the hospital and warned the hospital management committee not to throw the hazardous waste within the premises of the community.


Answer the following questions

a.How does the author describe the Japanese garbage waste management system?

Ans.: In the lesson, the author describes a unique waste management system practised in Japan. This system is called ‘sodaigomi’ in Japan. In this system of waste management, the residents of Japan deposit their household trash at specified areas on the street corners. The waste is wrapped in neat bundles, it looks like gifts and the bundle includes sofas, refrigerators, bookcases, chairs, bed frames, vacuum cleaners, televisions sets and even motorcycles. This sodaigomi practice occurs for two or three nights near the end of every month.

b.What are two reasons behind the existence of sodaigomi in Japanese culture? 

Ans.: The first reason people practice sodiaigomi in Japanese culture is that most of the people in Japan have small-sized typical Japanese houses where there is a lack of extra space in the house. And, the other reason is that the Japanese desire for freshness and purity and they do not like to use things that have passed through on other people’s hands.  Hence, there exists sodaigomi in Japanese culture. 

c.What, according to the author, do the Japanese feel at the thought of buying second hand items?

Ans.: According to the author, Japanese people feel that buying second-hand items is just like the author feels about buying someone else’s socks.

d.How is Malaysian culture different from Japanese culture concerning the used items? 

Ans: In Japanese culture, no people enjoy the buying of second-hand items or keeping the items used by other people. However, in Malaysian culture, it is not so. Even the second hand or used items are auctioned off and several customers enjoy enthusiastically bidding them. 

e.Why did the author feel awkward at the sodaigomi pile ? .

Ans: The author was new to Japan and in his earlier days, he didn’t have adequate goods in his house and these goods were quite expensive to buy. So, the author decided to use the goods thrown by the other people in the street as a part of sodaigomi. However, Japanese people have quite a negative attitude towards the use of second-hand goods. Because of this reason, the writer had to take the thrown goods on the street to his home at night. And, since they were practising such culture for the first time, they felt awkward taking the good to their home from the sodaigomi pile.

f.How many articles did the author bring to his house one after another? 

Ans.: The author brought many articles to his house one after another. The articles he brought to his house are: a nice plastic lawn chair, ordinary low Japanese tea table, a shiny new ball for son’s bicycle, a small attractive wooden cupboard, a complete set of wrenches and screwdrivers in a metal box, a barstool, a lacquer serving tray as well as a black-and-white TV.

g.Why do most people try to find things in trash pile ‘in the dead of the night?’

Ans.: The Japanese people maintain a unique practice called sodaigomi. In this practice, the people throw the things in a pile on the street. These things include chairs, tables, television sets and many others that are no longer of use to them. And, the needy people who need such items take away these items for their use. Since the people in Japanese culture feel awkward regarding the use of second-hand or materials used by other people, most of the people take these items to their home usually ‘in the dead of the night’ so that no other people can see them taking these goods to their home.

h.How did the author’s family assimilate Japanese culture in using consumer goods? 

Ans.: Within their one year of arrival in Japan, the writer’s family had learned a lot. They have realized that sodaigomi is part of a larger cycle, in which it is important to give as well as receive. Though the author’s family only took the goods from the sodaigomi pile initially, later they too started giving away their old and used goods when they bought the new goods. Thus, the author’s family assimilates Japanese culture consumer goods.

Critical Thinking

a.If you happen to be in Japan someday, will you collect articles from veshome? Why or why not?

Ans: The sodaigomi is a unique waste management system practised in Japan. In this practice the old, used and surplus items which are difficult to accommodate in their house are thrown away in the streets. These items are taken away by needy people.

If I happen to be in Japan someday, then I would definitely collect articles from so Though the culture in Japan might have a disgusting attitude towards the items used by other people, the culture of Nepal, where I have grown up doesn’t regard the use of second hand materials disgusting as the Japanese do. Rather, most Nepalese people enjoy second hand items if we can get them free of cost. In addition to this, being a student who has just migrated to Japan from Nepal to complete my study, I would definitely be unable to carry the great burden of buying new goods at the very expensive price of Japan. Therefore, in such context, it is for sure, this practice of sodaigomi would be a real blessing to students like me who have just migrated to Japan from Nepal to pursue my further study.

b.There are some second-hand shops in Nepal, too. But, people are not much interested in them. What practice would be suitable in managing second hand items in Nepal? 

Ans.: The best practice for me of managing second-hand items in Nepal is running a free second- hand bank system. Though Nepalese people are not much interested in second-hand shops, the free second-hand bank system can be an effective means of managing second-hand items in Nepal. In this practice, the people who want to discard or throw away the surplus items can donate these items to the second-hand bank. The second-hand item can include clothes, food items, furniture, kitchenware and many other items. And, from these second- hand banks, the needy people who are unable to afford to buy these items new, can take the required and needed item free of the cost. Rather than just throwing away the items, this practice fulfils the need and desire of needy and poor people on one hand and it also provides satisfaction on the part of the donor, on the other hand. Hence, running a free second-hand bank system seems to be a sound practice of managing second-hand items in Nepal to me.


A. Write a paragraph elaborating the idea of 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) in garbage management. 

Ans.: One of the best techniques for garbage management is 3Rs and 3RS stands for ‘Reduce. Reuse and Recycle’. The three R’s – reduce, reuse and recycle- all help to cut down on the amount of waste we throw away. ‘Reduce’ refers to use the things the minimum as far as possible in order to decrease the amount of waste generated. In addition to this, in order to reduce the garbage, the government can regulate the production and use of polythene bags and other non-degradable waste materials. For instance, the government can ban the production and use of plastic bags less than 50 microns in our country. Another example of reducing is to switch to free e-cards and reduce paper waste. In a similar vein, ‘Reuse’ of waste means any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used again for the same purpose for which they were conceived. For example, if we buy a jumbo bottle of cold drink, the bottle can simply be used again to serve as the bottle for keeping water, oil and other liquids at our home. Likewise, ‘Recycle’ is an act of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, cardboard, metal, plastic, tires, textiles, batteries and electronics. It promotes environmental sustainability by removing raw material input and redirecting waste output in the economic system. For this, the government should reinforce the plans and policies to force the respective industries and factories to encourage to recycle the non-degradable waste materials.

B.Garbage management is a big problem in most of the cities in Nepal. Write a letter to the editor to be published in the daily newspaper suggesting the ways of ‘Solving Garbage Problems’. 


The Editor,

The Rising Nepal,

Kathmandu, Nepal

In Nepal, garbage management has become a big problem in most cities. And, this fact has been supported by the rapid and unplanned urbanization that has taken place in different cities of Nepal. In addition to this, the unmanaged and unsystematic waste management system remains one of the perennial problems in the major cities of Nepal that has also acted as fuel to the fire in the already unmanaged urban system of Nepal.

Every day a huge amount of waste gets produced throughout most of the cities of Nepal. Solving the garbage problems of these cities is not an easy task. In fact, it is a more complicated and challenging task than it appears to be. The major reasons behind this level of pollution and unmanaged garbage system in the cities of Nepal include lack of public awareness, high use of polythene bags, plastic materials and other non-degradable wastages. no segregation of decomposable and non-decomposable waste, lack of spirit of responsibility among the dwellers, inconsistent and irregular removal of garbage by the responsible and concerned authorities, unmanaged and haphazard dispose of waste materials and many others. Hence, it is very essential to understand these major problems of the waste management system in different cities of Nepal before sorting out the solution to these problems.

Now talking of the solution of the waste management system in different cities of Nepal, the first and foremost thing required is awareness and cooperation on the part of residents of these cities.. The second thing required for effective waste management in these cities is the responsibility and sincerity on the part of concerned authorities. Likewise, the residents and authorities must segregate the waste into degradable and non-degradable and dispose of them accordingly.

More than 70 percent of total solid wastes produced in different cities of Nepal is biodegradable. And of the remaining 30 percent of waste, more than 20 percent of waste can be reused or recycled. In fact, if all the residents and concerned authorities cooperate with one another, then the actual waste to be managed in the cities of Nepal is just about 10 percent.

Likewise, regarding the management of non-biodegradable waste, we can use 3R technique -Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. The things that produce solid wastages should be used very minimum by the people and such non-biodegradable wastes can be reused to the maximum For example, if we buy a jumbo bottle of cold drink, the bottle can simply be used again to serve as the bottle for keeping water, oil and other liquids at our home. In addition to this the non-degradable waste materials can be recycled. For this, the government should reinforce the plans and policies to force the respective industries and encourage the new industries to recycle the non-degradable waste materials. In addition to this, the government can regulate the production and use of polythene bags and other waste materials. For instance, the government can ban the production and use of plastic bags less than 50 microns in our country. Thus, the problems related to garbage and other waste management system can be controlled in major cities of Nepal.


B. Use the words from the brackets to complete the sentences.

a. This house is very small. I want to buy a much bigger one. (much / big)

b. I liked the magic show. It was far more exciting than I’d expected. (far / exciting)

c. It was very cold yesterday. It’s a bit warmer today. (a bit / warm)

d. The warmer the weather the better I feel. (good)

e. An average American earns considerably higher than an average Nepali. (considerably / high)

f. Health care in Nepal is not as expensive as it is in the US. (expensive)

g. I think the problem is far more complicated than it seems. (far / complicated)

h. You are driving very fast. Would you please drive a bit slowly? (a bit/ slowly)

i. Your handwriting is not legible. Can you write a bit neat? (a bit/ neat)

C. Rewrite the following sentences with the sentence beginnings given below.

a. Kabir is less intelligent than he pretends. He is not as intelligent as he pretends.

b. I am busy today but I was busier yesterday. I’m not as busier as I was yesterday.

c. Hari has lived in Kathmandu for 10 years but Bikram for 20 years. Bikram has lived in Kathmandu 10 years more than Hari.

d. I used to study 12 hours a day but nowadays I study only 5 hours a day. I don’t study as much as I used to do.

e. It’s a very good room in our hotel. In fact, it’s the best compared to other.

f. He earns 30 thousand rupees a month but spends 40 thousand. He spends more than he earns.

g. There is no other mountain higher than Mt. Everest in the world. Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

h. The place was nearer than I thought. It was not as far as I thought.

i. Bharat can play better than Mohan. Mohan can’t play as good as Bharat.