Unit 2: Family Solution

Working with words

A. Find the words from the text and solve the puzzle. Clues are given below.


  1. the custom of having more than one wife at the same time – Polygamy
  2. to find an acceptable way of dealing with opposing ideas, needs etc. – Conflict
  3. the process in which towns, streets, etc. are built where there was once countryside – Urbanization
  4. the process by which somebody learns to behave in an acceptable way in their society – Socialization


  1. ruled or controlled by men – Patriarchy
  2. the act of taking over a position – takeover
  3. done in a way without caring if people are shocked – surprise
  4. single–parent – lone-parent

B.Find the meanings of the following family related words and use them in your own sentences.

nuclear family, monogamy, sibling-in-law, milk kinship, matrilineal, nepotism, maternity

1.Nuclear family: a family unit consisting of two parents (traditionally a mother and a father) and their children.

-Nowadays, people seem happy living in a nuclear family than in a joint family.

2.Monogamy: a marriage to one person, a practice of having one sexual partner

-When Mary discovered her husband cheating on her and ignoring the rule of monogamy, she filed for divorce.

3.Sibling-in-law: the spouse of your sibling or the sibling of your spouse

-David and Jonathan became sibling-in-law when David married Jonathan’s sister. Michelle.

4.Milk kinship: a relation formed when infants are breastfed by a non-biological mother 

-In most religions, milk kinship marriage is forbidden.

5.Matrilineal: of or based on kinship with the mother or the female line, related through mothers

-Khasi and Garo people in north-eastern India have some matrilineal elements

embedded in their culture.

6.Nepotism: favouring relatives especially by those who are in power

-The government has formulated and implemented a new rule that checks nepotism and corruption greatly.

7.Maternity: time during or after pregnancy, motherhood

-To confirm the maternity of the children who participated, DNA testing was carried out.

C. The following words are from the above text. Each word has two parts.

poly, un, non, dis and in are prefixes. They make new words when they are added to the beginning of other root words.

Make at least five words using the prefixes given. Consult a dictionary to learn how they change the meaning of root words.

Pre – preposition, precaution, previews, prefer, prepare
Semi – semi abandoned, semiabstract, semiarid, semi casual, semi-conductor
Sub – subconscious, subjugate, submissive, subordinate, subsidiary
Mis – misunderstand, mistake, misbehave, mistrust, misspell
Mono – monochrome, monocot, monocular, monoplane, monopoly
Un – unhappy, unhealthy, untouchable, undo, unemployment
In – internal, inflated, inject, informal, infant
Inter – Intermission, interactive, intercept, interchange, interlock


A. The headings of the first five paragraphs of the above text are given below. Write paragraph number next to them.

a. Patriarchal family – Paragraph No. 3
b. Functions of the family – Paragraph No.2
c. Modern model of family – Paragraph No. 5
d. Effects of industrialization on family structure – Paragraph No. 4
e. Defining family – Paragraph No. 1

B.Answer the following questions.

a. What type of family is thought to be the oldest form of the family? 

Ans.: The nuclear family is thought to be the oldest form of family.

b. How does a family provide security to its members ? 

Ans.: A family provides emotional and psychological security through the warmth, love

and companionship between spouses and their children through living together.

c.What were the features of medieval European family ?

Ans.: The features of medieval European family were:


ii. extended family

d.What caused the dissolution of extended families in the West? 

Ans.: Industrialization and the accompanying urbanization spawned many changes in family structure by causing a sharp change in life and occupation styles. Many people particularly unmarried youths left farms and went to urban centres to become industrial workers. This process caused the dissolution of extended families in the west.

e.What change occurred in gender role in the modern family emerged after the Industrial Revolution ? 

Ans.: After the industrial revolution, patriarchal rule begins to break down with the addition of family duties like caring for children and household works were shared by both males and females. Earning wages and the pursuit of public life also increased among female members.

f.What is family law ? 

Ans.: Family law is defined as the legal relationship among family members as well as the relationships between families and society at large. It also represents a delicate balance between the interests of society and the protection of individual rights.

g.How is modern marriage defined?

Ans : Mole in marriage is defined as a voluntary union between a man and a woman.

h.What do special family courts try to do? 

Ans: Special family counts attempt to deal more fairly during the dissolution of marriages

and give primity to the case like custody of children.

i.What does the legislation on child labour and child abuse declare?

Ans: The legislation on child labour and child abuse declares society’s responsibility for a child’s best interests.

j.What is common among most legal systems regarding property?

Ans: The common among most legal systems regarding property is that most of the laws recognize family claims in the event that property is left intestate, ie with no will to determine its distribution.

Critical thinking

A.What changes have started to occur in Nepali families in recent days? What impacts will they bring on the society? Discuss 

Ans. Most families in Nepal are strongly patriarchal; however, there are some matriarchal structures in communities. Many Nepali mothers also have quite a commanding status, especially over their children and daughters-in-law, and there is an increasing number of female-headed households.

Nevertheless, Nepal has made quick advances in acknowledging the many obstacles women face and general improvement is visible across the country. Women in urban areas are increasingly joining the paid workforce, while women in rural areas are engaging in subsistence farming and labour. There also appears to be a commitment on behalf of the government at many levels to increasing equality and uplifting women and girls. Indeed, Nepalese culture demonstrates respect for women and girls as it regards them as the form of goddesses. Nepal too on 8th March every year observes International Women’s Day. In Nepal, more women are also gaining power through political positions.

The trend of gender equality is developing rapidly in Nepal. Though discrimination existed between males and females some years ago, it has improved a lot at present time. This equality obviously helps the society to advance forward and achieve economic and social progress in the country. This will definitely help to create a good bonding among family members.

B.We see many elderly people in the elderly homes these days in Nepal. Some of them are abandoned while others live there willingly. Do you think Nepali people are deviating from their traditional culture? Give reasons. 

Ans.: Since the ancient ages, Nepalese people have lived in joint families who had parents, husband or wife, grandparents, children, grandchildren, uncles, aunts and cousins. It has been a custom to find that the parents and grandparents would take care of the children ofthe family. Also, when these children grow up, they become a support system for their parents and grandparents too When the parents and grandparents of the family get old and fall ill, their children would take care of them, give them proper medical facilities and spend quality time with them. Our traditional culture represents parents as the form of god and goddess.

However, it is unfortunate to express that, the elderly people at present time are not given such much care and attention. Owing to urbanization, modernization and several other factors, the joint families have split into many nuclear families. People have become so busy with their jobs that they hardly have any time to look after the older members of the family. Therefore, they leave their parents in old age homes. Also, many insensitive people abandon their parents, and as a result of which various governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations rescue them and admit them to old age homes.

Likewise, Nepalese people are adopting a new pace of life, western culture and are greatly affected by modern life. Most of the people migrate to the city for different purposes and prefer to live in a nuclear family. They leave their parents at home in the village and are becoming greatly irresponsible towards them due to their hectic life. The deviation of Nepalese people from family devotion has compelled many old parents to seek out shelter in the old care centres.

However, it is important not to forget that we have to take care of our parents during their old age because they have taken care of us and raised us with a lot of love and affection since our birth. We should not be selfish and seek their blessings by providing them physical, social and emotional support. On the part of the parents, it is important to get prepared for the worst and should not live with a lot of hopes, but make good savings to live independent life during the old age, in case their children abandon them or any mishap occurs. We should make sure that there should be no old age home at all. The elderly people should get love, care, attention and support from their own families.


A.Write an essay on The Importance of Family. In your essay, you can use these guiding questions

● Why family is important to you. 

● Why family is or is not important for society.

How you think families will change in the future.


The Importance of Family

A family is a group of individuals sharing common ancestors and living together. It is usually composed of parents and their children. The formation is possible with the relation of blood/kinship, marriage or adoption. The family members share the same kitchen and usually live under the same roof. A family is the first institution a human is exposed to and continues to live in throughout his/her life.

In the contemporary world, where meanings seem to blur, recognizing the significance of family becomes imperative. Despite the ever-evolving and modernizing global landscape, the essence of family remains unaltered. The type of family one belongs to—be it a joint family, a same-sex partner family, or a nuclear family—holds equal weight, contingent on the presence of care and acceptance. The strength of a family lies in the relationships fostered among its members, each possessing unique connections.

Undoubtedly, the importance of family cannot be overstated. In an era where advancements sometimes overshadow fundamental values, those fortunate enough to have a family may overlook its true worth. Conversely, individuals without families recognize the profound value they bring. Serving as a wellspring of strength, families play a pivotal role in shaping us into better individuals. The love inherited within the family unit is a force that extends beyond, enriching our interactions with the wider world.

Beyond familial love, families impart crucial lessons in communication. Open and loving dialogue within the family unit sets the stage for meaningful connections outside it. By staying connected with our families, we cultivate skills that facilitate better interactions with the world. Moreover, the familial setting teaches the virtue of patience, fostering resilience in the face of challenges within the family circle. This acquired patience extends to our interactions with the broader world.

Families contribute significantly to our confidence and sense of belonging. Serving as unwavering pillars of strength, they fortify us, enabling personal growth and the development of positive character traits. Society, a collective of families, reinforces the integral role of families. Families instill a sense of responsibility toward society, providing social security and shaping an individual’s identity within the broader social context.

Looking ahead, the dynamics of families may undergo transformations due to the relentless progress of modern technology. Over the next 5-10 years, the conventional large family structure is likely to give way to a prevalence of nuclear families. Despite these shifts, the enduring importance of family in shaping individuals and society remains a steadfast reality.

b. Some people think it is better to live in a nuclear family. Other people think that living in extended family is more advantageous. What do you think? Write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of both.


In my opinion, both the extended family and nuclear family have their own merits and drawbacks, and their effectiveness depends on various factors.

An extended family encompasses multiple generations, with all family members, including children, growing up with a sense of shared responsibilities. This family structure, prevalent in Nepal and favored by many, fosters strong social and emotional bonds among its members. It provides economic and social security and ensures proper care, supervision, and education for children. Additionally, the extended family serves as a guardian of cultural values and traditions. However, it is not without its disadvantages, potentially hindering individual personality development, compromising privacy, and leading to lower living standards. Meeting the diverse needs of each member can also be challenging, and dependency issues may arise.

On the other hand, a nuclear family consists of parents and their children, offering advantages such as heightened understanding and cooperation due to fewer members, reduced likelihood of internal conflicts, and ease in meeting the needs of each family member. The nuclear family structure allows for more autonomy in decision-making. However, it comes with its own set of disadvantages, including a lack of security and support, potential neglect of children and elderly family members, and a generation gap in adhering to cultural norms and values. Careers may also impact the time and attention parents can dedicate to their children.

In summary, both nuclear and extended families have their own strengths and weaknesses. The effectiveness of each family structure depends on individual preferences, cultural context, and specific family dynamics.


B. Choose the best answer to complete the sentences.

a. ‘How much was your parking ticket?’ ‘Fifty rupees.’ ‘Oh well, it could have been worse.’
b. It must have. got lost in the post. These things happen sometimes.
c. ‘Sorry I’m late. I got delayed at work.’ ‘You must have called. I was really worried about you.’
d. ‘I don’t think he meant to be rude.’ ‘He must have said sorry.’
e. ‘Whose signature is this?’ ‘I don’t know. It could be Manoj’s. That looks a bit like an M.’
f. I had it when I left the office so I mustn’t have. lost it on the way to home.
g. You must have think it’s funny, but I think it’s pathetic.

C. Complete the following sentences with appropriate endings. Use correct modal verbs.

a. At the end of the course, we must be prepared for the individual presentation.
b. If you want to earn a lot of money, I would suggest some tips.
c. You were not in your house yesterday. You could have your belongings stolen.
d. I’m quite busy tomorrow. I must visit my dentist.
e. When you were a small kid, you could ask for money from your relatives.
f. My car is broken. I should take it to the service center.
g. I’ve got a fast speed internet at home. I can watch movies in high quality.
h. Even though she didn’t study well, she could solve all the problems.
i. There are plenty of newspapers in the library. You can read any of them if you want.
j. What do you think you were doing, playing in the road? You could have been hit by the car.
k. I have no time. I can’t meet you.
l. You don’t look well. You should take a rest.