Unit 9: Democracy And Human Rights Solution
(Inaguration speech of Nelson Mandela)

Way With Words

A. Find the words in the text that mean the same as the following. The first letters are given.

a. the system that completely separated black people from white people (apartheid)

b. formal objection (protest)

c. an ethnical group of people (tribe)

d. an act undertaken to achieve a set goal (campaign)

e. the formal beginning of any movement (inauguration)

f. a strong feeling of excitement and happiness (exhilaration)

g. being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions (emancipation)

B.Find these words in a dictionary and write their meanings as they are used in the text.


a. liberty: the legal right and freedom to do something.

b. conflict: a situation in which people, groups or countries are involved in a serious disagreement or argument.

c. ideology: a set or ideas that an economic or political system is based on.

d. oppression: to treat somebody in a cruel and unfair way, especially by not giving them the same freedom, rights etc.

e. privilege: something that you are proud and lucky to have the opportunity to do.

f. dignity: a sense of your own importance and value

g. surrender: the fact of allowing yourself to be controlled by something

h. reconcialiation: an end to a disagreement and the start of a good relationship again.’

C.The ‘d’ or ‘ed’ in the following verbs have different pronunciation. Put these verbs in the correct box.

[asked, killed, missed, ended, decided, washed, visited, lasted, watched, picked, smiled, fixed, walked, blessed, brushed, stopped, wanted, reached, laughed, enjoyed]



D. Put these nouns into the correct box according to the pronunciation of the plural suffix: s/es.

[cats, dogs, horses, houses, books, roofs, boys, rooms, girls, noises, shops, trees, pages, babies, benches, classes]



Answer these questions

a.What were the restrictions imposed on the Blacks in South Africa?
Ans: The restrictions imposed on the blacks in South Africa were apartheid, racial segregation, political and economic discrimination etc.

b. Why was Mandela arrested?
Ans: Mandela was arrested because he was charged with organizaing an armed wing of the ANC.

c.How did he describe racism and racial oppression ?
Ans: He described racism and racial oppression as the cause of terrible conflict, as the cause that country was outlawed and isolated by the people of the world and as the base of the pernicious ideology and practice.

d. Why did he thank all the international guests?
Ans: He thanked all the international guests for visiting Africa and taking possession with the people of his country which was for common victory, justice and peace.

e.Why did he think that people in his country had achieved political emancipation?
Ans: He thought that people in his country had achieved political emancipation because he was freed from the prison and was elected as the first black president of the country and her himself that he will liberate people from every kind of discrimination.

f.What is the main point of Mandela’s speech?
Ans: The main point of his speech is liberty. They had achieved their goal after a long struggle. It was a common victory for justice, peace, and human dignity. Their dreams to end all kinds of discrimination have come true.

Critical thinking

a.What does Mandela mean when he says – a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world?

Ans: Mandela said it in his inauguration speech. It means that South Africa, itself is a peace loving nation. They want to spread the message of peace and equality. A rainbow nation symbolizes people of different caste, culture and race. There are seven colours in a rainbow and they are in their own place staying together. Similarly, he expectes all the people of his country, to live together with social solidarity. They had achieved their goals after a long struggle. And now there is new challenge for them to unite all the people not only in speech, but also in behavior. In the above line he just wants to highlight the need of peace in South Africa and world.
b.Mandela should have avenged on those who imprisoned him for such a long period. Instead, he followed the path of reconciliation. Why do you think he did so?
Ans: It is true that there is no alternative to peace. Violence cannot be the answer of violence. We can imagine that he could have thought of avenge with them, who imprisoned him for a long time. But he did not do so. He wanted peace, justice and liberty. If he had thought of revenge, the country could have been in internal conflict again. He just wanted all the people to live together, walk together and work together. One of his major goals was to end the discrimination between black and white. He followed the path of reconciliation to ensure the peace in the nation. He was aware that a wrong step could ruin his dream to bring peace, prosperity, justice and parity. Therefore, as a wise statesman he followed the path of reconciliation.

c. Why and how have societies struggled with segregation in the world? Do you find any evidence of segregation in your society? Discuss.

Ans: At present there are struggles in many societies. There are segregations in the societies in the names of religion, race, colour, and so on. People are hunger of power. It can cause the division of people. Racial segregaion is one of the common forms of segregation which is illegal but still exists in the world. It is commonly seen in multicultural societies. Some people are intentionally involve in segregation for their individual benefit. Segregation brings conflict and disorder in the society. The constitution of our country does not support any kind of segregation due to race, caste, culture and religion. But it takes time to solve this deeply rooted problem because it exists in different forms. This kind of segregation was experienced in 2046 BS after Panchayat system was overthrown. At that time people were divided in the name of politics.


a. Nepal has topsy-turvy political history. Many changes have been observed in different times. Write a short biography of any Nepali freedom fighter incorporating the changes brought under his/her leadership.

Biography of B.P Koirala
Bishweshwor Prasad Koirala, popularly known as B.P. Koirala was a Nepali politician a famous literary figure. He was born on 8 september, 1914 in Varanasi, India. He was the son of Krishna Prasad Koirala and Dibya Koirala.
He was married to Sushila Koirala. He was the first elected prime minister of Nepal. He was the prime minister of Nepal from 1959 to 1960. He led the Nepali congress, a social democratic party. He held the office for 18 months as 22nd prime minister of Nepal, before being imprisoned at instruction of King Mahendra.
He was the freedom fighter and devoted his live for the democracy. He spent many years of his life in prison but never got discouraged. He was not only a successful politican but also a prolific writer. He has also written his autobiography. He struggled a lot to bring democracy in Nepal. He fought against Rana rule and Panchayat system. He, along with Ganesh Man Singh and Subarna Shumsher led Nepali democratic movement into a height and overthrew Rana regime.
He is still greatly honoured and remembered as a politician and writer. He was died on 21 July, 1982, at the age of 67. He is a role model for many people in the country. He remains in the hearts of many people for his contribution in the fields of politics and literature.

b.Do you think there is racial/caste related discrimination in our country? Discuss with your friend; write a five-minute speech.
Ans: Honourable chair person, distinguished guests and my friends, I would like to thank organizer and everyone present over here. I am here on the stage to deliver a short speech.

No society is free from discrimination. There are various causes of discrimination. Sometimes in the name of, caste, culture, race, tradition, religion, colour, community, rich, poor, political philosophy and so on but it exists almost in every society. Such discrimination brings segregation and conflicts which causes obstruction in developmental acivities.

Our country is not an excepton of it. Caste related discrimination is deeply rooted in our society. People are discriminated in the name of so called upper caste and lower caste. It is a kind of superstitious belief which should be uprooted from our society Constitution of Nepal has given follow such inhuman tradition in 21st century. Even, well educated people seem to be involved in it. equal rights to very citizen irrespective to any caste, culture and religion. People still believe and Such discrimination is a serious crime against humanity. It is against the norms and values of civilized society. It is prevalent in our society especially due to poverty and illiteracy. Such tradition cannot be uprooted within a day or night, it might take many generations. If all the people and educated, we can bring change in the society. Our collected effort is needed for this. Thank you.


B. Complete the sentences with should or shouldn’t. Use one of these verbs.

a. You have really done a wonderful job. I recommend you shouldn’t leave it.

b. That’s a very dangerous area. Tourists shouldn’t visit there.

c. I’m going to be late. Do you think I should leave now?

d. Children shouldn’t drink sugary drinks. It’s not very healthy.

e. I have lots of homework. I shouldn’t roam here and there today.

C. Put in had better or should.
a. I think you should learn English to enroll a university course.

b. It’s a great film. You should go and see it.

c. I have to meet my friend in ten minutes. I had better go now or I’ll be late.

d. These biscuits are delicious. You should try one.

e. We had better get to the airport by 2 pm or else we may miss the flight.

f. When people are driving, they should keep their eyes on the road.

g. I should get up early tomorrow. I’ve got a lot to do.